# Smoothing and Aggregating Data

## Contents

# 11.2. Smoothing and Aggregating Data#

When we have lots of data, we often don’t want to plot all of the individual data points. The following scatter plot shows data from Cherry Blossom, an annual 10-mile race that takes place in Washington, DC, in April, when the cherry trees are in bloom. These data were scraped from the race’s website and include official times and other information for all registered male runners from 1999 to 2012. We’ve plotted the runner’s age on the x-axis and race time on the y-axis:

```
fig = px.scatter(runners, x='age', y='time',
labels={'age': 'Runner age (yr)', 'time': 'Race time (sec)'})
fig.write_image('figures/cherry-overplotting.png', scale=3)
```

This scatter plot contains over 70,000 points.
With so many points, many of them overlap.
This is a common problem called *overplotting*.
In this case, overplotting prevents us from seeing how time and age are related.
About the only thing that we can see in this plot is a group of very young runners, which points to possible issues with data quality.
To address overplotting, we use smoothing techniques that aggregate data before plotting.

## 11.2.1. Smoothing Techniques to Uncover Shape#

The histogram is a familiar type of plot that uses smoothing. A histogram aggregates data values by putting points into bins and plotting one bar for each bin. Smoothing here means that we cannot differentiate the location of individual points in a bin: the points are smoothly allocated across their bins. With histograms, the area of a bin corresponds to the percentage (or count or proportion) of points in the bin. (Often the bins are equal in width, and we take a shortcut to label the height of a bin as the proportion.)

The following histogram plots the distribution of lifespans for dog breeds:

```
fig = px.histogram(dogs, x="longevity", marginal="rug", nbins=20,
labels={"longevity": "Typical lifespan (yr)"}, histnorm="percent",
width=350, height=250)
fig.update_traces(marker_line_width=1, marker_line_color="black")
fig
```

Above this histogram is a rug plot that draws a single line for every data value. We can see in the tallest bin that even a small amount of data can cause overplotting in the rug plot. By smoothing out the points in the rug plot, the histogram reveals the general shape of the distribution. In this case, we see that many breeds have a longevity of about 12 years. For more on how to read and interpret histograms, see Chapter 10.

Another common smoothing technique is *kernel density estimation* (KDE).
A KDE plot shows the distribution using a smooth curve rather than bars.
In the following plot, we show the same histogram of dog longevity with a KDE curve overlaid. The KDE curve has a similar shape as the histogram:

```
from scipy.stats import gaussian_kde
fig = px.histogram(dogs, x="longevity", marginal="rug",
histnorm='probability density', nbins=20,
labels={"longevity":"Typical lifespan (yr)"},
width=350, height=250)
fig.update_traces(marker_color='rgba(76,114,176,0.3)',
marker_line_width=1, marker_line_color="black",
selector=dict(type='histogram'))
bandwidth = 0.2
xs = np.linspace(min(dogs['longevity']), max(dogs['longevity']), 100)
ys = gaussian_kde(dogs['longevity'], bandwidth)(xs)
curve = go.Scatter(x=xs, y=ys)
fig.add_trace(curve)
fig.update_traces(marker_color='rgb(76,114,176)',
selector=dict(type='scatter'))
fig.update_yaxes(title='density', row=1, col=1)
fig.update_layout(showlegend=False)
fig
```

It might come as a surprise to think of a histogram as a smoothing method. Both the KDE and histogram aim to help us see important features in the distribution of values. Similar smoothing techniques can be used with scatter plots. This is the topic of the next section.

## 11.2.2. Smoothing Techniques to Uncover Relationships and Trends#

We can find high-density regions of a scatter plot by binning data, like in a histogram. The following plot, remakes the earlier scatter plot of the Cherry Blossom race times against age. This plot uses hexagonal bins to aggregate points together, and then shades the hexagons based on how many points fall in them:

```
runners_over_17 = runners[runners["age"] > 17]
plt.figure(figsize=(4, 4))
plt.hexbin(data=runners_over_17, x='age', y='time', gridsize=35, cmap='Blues')
sns.despine()
plt.grid(False)
plt.xlabel("Runner age (yr)")
plt.ylabel("Race time (sec)");
```

Notice the high-density region in the 25 to 40 age group signified by the dark region in the plot. The plot shows us that many of the runners in this age range complete the race in around 5,000 seconds (about 80 minutes). (Note that we drop the dubious young runners from this plot.) We can also see upward curvature in the region corresponding to the 40 to 60 age group, which indicates that these runners are generally slower than those in the 25 to 40 age group. This plot is similar to a heat map where the higher-density regions are conveyed through hotter or brighter colors.

Kernel density estimation also works in two dimensions. When we use KDE in two dimensions, we typically plot the contours of the resulting three-dimensional shape, and we read the plot like a topographical map:

```
plt.figure(figsize=(5, 3))
fig = sns.kdeplot(data=runners_over_17, x='age', y='time')
plt.xlabel("Runner age (yr)")
plt.ylabel("Race time (sec)");
```

This two-dimensional KDE gives similar insights as the shaded squares of the previous plot. We see a high concentration of runners in the 25 to 40 age group, and these runners have times that appear to be roughly 5,000 seconds. Smoothing lets us get a better picture when there’s lots of data because it can reveal the locations of highly concentrated data values and the shape of these high-concentration regions. These regions may be impossible to see otherwise.

Another smoothing approach that is often more informative smooths the y-values for points with a similar x-value. To explain, let’s group together runners with similar ages; we use five-year increments: 20–25, 25–30, 30–35, and so on. Then, for each five-year bin of runners, we average their race times, plot the average time for each group, and connect the points to form a “curve”:

```
times = (
runners_over_17.assign(age_5yr=runners_over_17['age'] // 5 * 5)
.groupby('age_5yr')['time'].mean().reset_index()
)
px.line(times, x='age_5yr', y='time',
labels={'time':"Average race time (sec)", 'age_5yr':"Runner age (5-yr)"},
markers=True,
width=350, height=250)
```

This plot shows once again that runners in the 25 to 40 age range have typical run times of about 5,400 seconds. It also shows that older runners took longer to complete the race on average (not really a surprise, but it wasn’t nearly as evident in the earlier plots). The dip in times for runners under age 20 and the flattening of the curve at age 80 may simply be the result of fewer and fitter runners in these groups. Another smoothing technique uses kernel smoothing similar to the KDE. We don’t go into the details here.

The binning and kernel smoothing techniques rely on a tuning parameter that specifies the width of the bin or the spread of the kernel, and we often need to specify this parameter when making a histogram, KDE, or smooth curve. This is the topic of the next section.

## 11.2.3. Smoothing Techniques Need Tuning#

Now that we’ve seen how smoothing is useful for plotting, we turn to the issue of tuning. For histograms, the width of the bins or, for equal-width bins, the number of bins affects the look of the histogram. The left histogram of longevity shown here has a few wide bins, and the right histogram has many narrow bins:

```
f1 = px.histogram(dogs, x="longevity", nbins=3, histnorm='probability density',
width=350, height=250)
f1.update_traces(marker_color='rgba(76,114,176,0.3)',
selector=dict(type='histogram'))
f1.data[0].marker.line = dict( color = 'black',width = 1)
#bandwidth = 0.5
xs = np.linspace(min(dogs['longevity']), max(dogs['longevity']), 100)
ys = gaussian_kde(dogs['longevity'])(xs)
curve = go.Scatter(x=xs, y=ys)
f1.add_trace(curve)
f2 = px.histogram(dogs, x="longevity", nbins=100, histnorm='probability density',
width=350, height=250)
f2.update_traces(marker_color='rgba(76,114,176,0.3)',
selector=dict(type='histogram'))
f2.data[0].marker.line = dict( color = 'black',width = 1)
fig = left_right(f1, f2, height=250)
fig.update_xaxes(title_text='Longevity (yr)', row=1, col=1)
fig.update_xaxes(title_text='Longevity (yr)', row=1, col=2)
fig.update_yaxes(title_text='density', row=1, col=1)
fig
```

In both histograms, it’s hard to see the shape of the distribution.
With a few wide bins (the plot on the left), we have over-smoothed the distribution, which makes it impossible to discern modes and tails. On the other hand, too many bins (the plot on the right) gives a plot that’s little better than a rug plot.
KDE plots have a parameter called the *bandwidth* that works similarly to the bin width of a histogram.

Most histogram and KDE software automatically choose the bin width for the histogram and the bandwidth for the kernel. However, these parameters often need a bit of fiddling to create the most useful plot. When you create visualizations that rely on tuning parameters, it’s important to try a few different values before settling on one.

A different approach to data reduction is to examine quantiles. This is the topic of the next section.

## 11.2.4. Reducing Distributions to Quantiles#

We found in Chapter 10 that while box plots aren’t as informative as histograms, they can be useful when comparing the distributions of many groups at once. A box plot reduces the data to a few essential features based on the data quartiles. More generally, quantiles (the lower quartile, median, and upper quartile are the 25th, 50th, and 75th quantiles) can provide a useful reduction in the data when comparing distributions.

When two distributions are roughly similar in shape, it can be hard to compare them with histograms. For instance, the histograms that follow show the price distributions for two- and four-bedroom houses in the San Francisco housing data. The distributions look roughly similar in shape. But a plot of their quantiles handily compares the distributions’ center, spread, and tails:

```
px.histogram(sfh.query('br in [2, 4]'),
x='price', log_x=True, facet_col='br',
labels={'price':"Sale price (USD)"},
width=700, height=250)
```

We can compare quantiles with a *quantile-quantile* plot, called q–q plot for short. To make this plot, we first compute percentiles (also called quantiles) for both the two- and four-bedroom distributions of price:

```
br2 = sfh.query('br == 2')
br4 = sfh.query('br == 4')
percs = np.arange(1, 100, 1)
perc2 = np.percentile(br2['price'], percs, method='lower')
perc4 = np.percentile(br4['price'], percs, method='lower')
perc_sfh = pd.DataFrame({'percentile': percs, 'br2': perc2, 'br4': perc4})
perc_sfh
```

percentile | br2 | br4 | |
---|---|---|---|

0 | 1 | 1.50e+05 | 2.05e+05 |

1 | 2 | 1.82e+05 | 2.50e+05 |

2 | 3 | 2.03e+05 | 2.75e+05 |

... | ... | ... | ... |

96 | 97 | 1.04e+06 | 1.75e+06 |

97 | 98 | 1.20e+06 | 1.95e+06 |

98 | 99 | 1.44e+06 | 2.34e+06 |

99 rows × 3 columns

Then we plot the matching percentiles on a scatter plot. We usually also show the reference line y = x to help with the comparison:

```
fig = px.scatter(perc_sfh, x='br2', y='br4', log_x=True, log_y=True,
labels={'br2': 'Price of 2-bedroom house',
'br4': 'Price of 4-bedroom house'},
width=350, height=250)
fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[1e5, 2e6], y=[1e5, 2e6],
mode='lines', line=dict(dash='dash')))
fig.update_layout(showlegend=False)
fig
```

When the quantile points fall along a line, the variables have similarly shaped distributions. Lines parallel to the reference indicate a difference in center; lines with slopes other than 1 indicate a difference in spread, and curvature indicates a difference in shape. From the preceding q–q plot, we see that the distribution of price for four-bedroom houses is similar in shape to the two-bedroom distribution, except for a shift of about $100K and a slightly longer right tail (indicated by the upward bend for large values). Reading a q–q plot takes practice. Once you get the hang of it, though, it can be a handy way to compare distributions. Notice that the housing data have over 100,000 observations, and the q–q plot has reduced the data to 99 percentiles. This data reduction is quite useful. However, we don’t always want to use smoothers. This is the topic of the next section.

## 11.2.5. When Not to Smooth#

Smoothing and aggregating can help us see important features and relationships, but when we have only a handful of observations, smoothing techniques can be misleading. With just a few observations, we prefer rug plots over histograms, box plots, and density curves, and we use scatter plots rather than smooth curves and density contours. This may seem obvious, but when we have a large amount of data, the amount of data in a subgroup can quickly dwindle. This phenomeon is an example of the *curse of dimensionality*.

One of the most common misuses of smoothing happens with box plots. As an example, here is a collection of seven box plots of longevity, one for each of seven types of dog breed:

```
px.box(dogs, x='group', y='longevity',
labels={'group':"", 'longevity':"Longevity (yr)"},
width=500, height=250)
```

Some of these box plots have as few as two or three observations. The strip plot that follows is a preferable visualization:

```
px.strip(dogs, x="group", y="longevity",
labels={'group':"", 'longevity':"Longevity (yr)"},
width=400, height=250)
```

In this plot, we can still compare the groups, but we also see the exact values in each group. Now we can tell that there are only three breeds in the non-sporting group; the impression of a skewed distribution, based on the box plot, reads too much into the shape of the box.

This section introduced the problem of overplotting, where we have overlapping points because of a large dataset. To address this issue, we introduced smoothing techniques that aggregate data. We saw two common examples of smoothing—binning and kernel smoothing—and applied them in the one- and two-dimensional settings. In one dimension, these are histograms and kernel density curves, respectively, and they both help us see the shape of a distribution. In two dimensions, we found it useful to smooth y-values while keeping x-values fixed in order to visualize trends. We addressed the need to tune the smoothing amount to get more informative histograms and density curves, and we cautioned against smoothing with too few data.

There are many other ways to reduce overplotting in scatter plots.
For instance, we can make the dots partially transparent so that overlapping points appear darker.
If many observations have the same values (like when longevity is rounded to the nearest year),
then we can add a small amount of random noise to the values to reduce the amount of overplotting.
This procedure is called *jittering*, and it is used in the strip plot of longevity.
Transparency and jittering are convenient for medium-sized data.
However, they don’t work well for large datasets since plotting all the points still overwhelms the visualization.

The quantile-quantile plot we introduced offers one way to compare distributions with far fewer points; another is to use side-by-side box plots and yet another is to overlay KDE curves in the same plot. We often aim to compare distributions and relationships across subsets (or groups) of data, and in the next section, we discuss several design principles that facilitate meaningful comparisons for a variety of plot types.